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Subject Lecture Hours Practical Hours Total Hours
Human Oral and Dental Anatomy, Embryology,Physiology and Histology 105 250 355

THEORY: 105 Hours


1. Introduction, Dental Anthropology & Comparative Dental Anatomy (Chapter 1- 4 3 Hrs)

2. Function of teeth.

3. Nomenclature.

4. Tooth numbering systems (Different system) (Dental formula).

5. Chronology of deciduous and permanent teeth. (First evidence of calcification, crown completion, eruption and root completion). (2 Hrs)

6. Deciduous teeth – (4 Hrs)
a. Nomenclature.
b. Importance of deciduous teeth.
c. Form & function, comparative dental, Anatomy, fundamental curvature.

7. Gross morphology of deciduous teeth. (5 Hrs)

8. General differences between deciduous and permanent teeth. (1 Hr)

9. Morphology of permanent teeth. (3 Hrs)
– Chronology, measurements, description of individual surface and variations of each tooth.

10. Morphological differences between incisors, premolars and molars of same arch. (10 Hrs)

11. Morphological differences between maxillary and mandibular incisors, canines, premolars and molars of the opposite arch. (5 Hrs)

12. Internal Anatomy of Pulp. (1 Hr)

13. Occlusion: (8 Hrs)
a. Development of occlusion.
b. Dental arch form.
c. Compensating curves of dental arches.
d. Angulations of individual teeth in relation to various planes.
e. Functional form of the teeth at their incisal and occlusal thirds.
f. Facial relations of each tooth in one arch to its antagonist or antagonists in the opposing arch in centric occlusion.
g. Occlusal contact and interscusp relations of all the teeth of one arch with those in the opposing arch in centric occlusion.
h. Occlusal contact and intercusp relations of all the teeth during the various functional mandibular movements.
i. Neurobehavioural aspect of occlusion.
14. Tempero Mandibular Joint (T.M.J.:
– Gross Anatomy and articulation.
– Muscles (Muscles of mastication).
– Mandibular position and movements.
– Histology.
– Clinical considerations with special emphasis on Myofacial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS)

1. Theories of calcification (1 Hr)

2. Mastication and deglutition. (1 Hr)

III. Oral Embryology, Anatomy and Histology:

1. Development and growth of face and jaws. (1 Hr)

2. Development of tooth. (6 Hrs)

3. Cranial nerves with more emphasis on V.VII and IX. (1 Hr)

4. Blood supply, nerve supply and lymphatic drainage of teeth and surrounding structures. (1 Hr)

5. Cell – structure and function. (1 Hr)

6. Maxillary sinus – Structure, Variations, Histology function and clinical considerations. (3 Hrs)

7. Salivary Glands – Classification, structure, function, Histology, Clinical Considerations and age changes. (4 Hrs)

8. Mucous membrane: (8 Hrs)
– Definitions, General consideration.
– Functions and classifications.
– Structure and microscopic appearance of gingiva, palate, lips, alveolar mucosa, tongue, floor of mouth.
– Gingival sulcus and dento gingival junction.
– Clinical considerations and age changes.

9. Enamel: (8 Hrs)
– Physical characteristics, chemical properties structure.
– Development -Life cycle of ameloblasts Amelogenesis and Mineralisation.
– Clinical considerations. – Age changes.

10. Dentin: (6 Hrs)
– Physical characteristics, chemical properties, structure.
– Types of dentin.
– Dentin innervation and hypersensitivity.
– Development – Dentinogenesis and mineralisation.
– Clinical considerations.
– Age Changes.

11. Pulp: Anatomy, structural features, functions, pulp organs. (5 Hrs)
– Developments.
– Clinical consideration
– Age changes.

12. Cementum: (5 Hrs)
– Physical characteristics, chemical properties, structure.
– Cementogenesis.
– Clinical consideration
– Age changes.

13. Periodontal ligament: (5 Hrs)
– Cells and fibers
– Functions
– Development
– Clinical Considerations.
– Age Changes

14. Alveolar bone: (5 Hrs)
– Physical characteristics, chemical properties structure.
– Structure
– Development.
– Internal reconstruction
– Clinical consideration.

15. Histochemistry of Oral Tissues. (Tissue processing) (4 Hrs)

16. Theories of Eruption and Shedding. (Physiological tooth movement) (4 Hrs)
PRACTICAL: 250 Hours


Carving on wax blocks:-
a. Cube, rectangle, cone and cylinder
b. Individual tooth – Only permanent teeth of both arches.
– Central, Incisors, Lateral, Canines, Premolars and 1st molar.

HISTOLOGY: List of Histology slides

1. Bud stage of tooth development.
2. Cap stage of tooth development.
3. Early bell stage of tooth development
4. Late Bell stage of tooth development.
5. Root formation.

1. Enamel rod.
2. Hunter-Schreger Bands
3. Tufts, Lamellae, Spindles.
4. Incremental lines of Retzius.
5. Neonatal line.
6. Gnarled Enamel.

1. Dentino – Enamel junction.
2. Dentinal Tubules.
3. Incremental lines of Von Ebner.
4. Contour lines of owen.
5. Neonatal line.
6. Tomes granular layer.
7. Interglobular Dentin.
8. Secondary Dentin.
9. Intratubular Dentin.
10. IntertubularDentin.
11. Dead Tracts
12. Tertiary Dentin
13. Sclerotic Dentin

1. Cellular cementum.
2. Acellular cementum.
3. Cemento enamel junction
– Type 1 – 60% type – Ovelapping.
– Type 2 – 30% type – Butt
– Type 3 – 10% type – GAP type
4. Sharpey’s fibers.
5. Hypercemntosis.
6. Cementum

1. Zones of Pul.p
2. Pulp stones.

1. Principal fibers of periodontal ligament
– Apical, Horizontal, Oblique, Aveolar crest, Interradicular, Transeptal

1. Haversian system.
2. Trabeculated bone.
3. Mature and immature bone.

1. Mucous gland
2. Serous gland.
3. Mixed gland.

Sinus lining (Pseudostratified ciliated columnar)

1. Parakeratinised epithelium.
2. Orthokeratinised epithelium
3. Palate – Anterolateral zone.
4. Palate – Posterolateral zone.
5. Alveolar mucosa.
6. Vermilion border of lip.
7. Tongue – Circumvallate Papillae.
– Fungiform Papillae
– Filiform Papillae
8. Dentogingival junction.
9. Skin

Tempero Mandibular Joint (T.M.J.):
1. Histological section


1. Identification of Individual teeth. Deciduous & Permanent.

2. Mixed dentition using study models.

3. Cross – Section & T.S. of mandible and maxilla with teeth present using study models.

4. Demonstration of preparation of ground section, Decalcification, Paraffin section & H & E Staining.


  1. Theory : 70 Marks
Distribution of Topics and Type of Questions
Contents Type of Questions and Marks Marks

A. Dental anatomy – one question – 10 marks

B. Dental histology – one question – 10 marks


Long Essays

2 x 10 marks



A. Oral histology – five questions – 25 marks

B. Dental anatomy – two questions – 10 marks

C. Oral physiology – one question – 05 marks


Short Essays

08 x 5 marks



A. Oral histology – two questions – 04 marks

B. Dental anatomy – one question – 02 marks

C. Oral physiology – one question – 02 marks

D. Oral embryology – one question – 02 marks


Short Answers

05 x 2marks



  Total 70

B. Viva Voce : 20 Marks
C. Internal Assessment – Theory : 10 marks, Practicals : 10 marks
D. Practicals: 90 Marks
1. Carving 30 marks 1 hour 15 min
2. Spotters 60 marks (20 spotter x 3 marks) 1 hour 15 min

13 histology and ground section slides
4 tooth identification
3 casts for identifications of teeth, numbering system and age assessment.


Theory: 25 Hours
Practical: 50 Hours

Sl. No. Subject LectureHours Practical Hours Clinical Hours Total Hours
1 Oral Pathology and Oral Microbiology 25 50 75

1. Developmental Disturbances of oral and para oral structures: (15 hrs)

a. Developmental disturbances of Jaws
– Agnathia, Micrognathia, Macrognathia, Facial Hemihypertrophy, Facial Hemiatropy

b. Developmental Disturbances of lips and palate
– Congenital Lip pits and Commissural pits and fistulas
– Double lip, Cleft lip, cleft Palate, Chelitis Glandularis, Chelitis Granulomatosa, Hereditary Intestinal Polyposis, Hereditary Melanotic Macule

c. Developmental disturbances of Oral Mucosa
– Fordyce’s Granules
– Focal epithelial Hyperplasia

d. Developmental disturbances of gingiva
– Fibromatosis Gingiva, Retrocuspid Papilla

e. Developmental Disturbances of Tongue
– Macroglossia, Microglossia, Ankyloglossia, Cleft Tongue, Fissured Tongue, Median
Rhomboid Glossitis, Benign Migratory Glossitis, Hairy Tongue.
– Aglossia, macroglossia, Microglossia, Ankyloglossia, Cleft Tongue, Fissured Tongue, Median Rhomboid Glossitis, Benign Migratory Glossitis, Hairy Tongue, lingual Varices, lingual Thyroid Nodule

f. Development disturbances of oral lymphoid tissue:
– Reactive lymphoid aggregates
– Lymphoid hamartoma
– Lympho-epithelial cyst

g. Developmental disturbances of salivary glands:
– Aplasia, Xerostomia, Hyperplasia of the palatal glands, Atresia, Abberrancy, Staffne’s cyst, Anterior Lingual Depression

h. Developmental disturbances in size of teeth:
– Microdontia, Macrodontia

I. Developmental disturbances in the shape of the teeth:
– Fusion, Germination, Concrescence, Dilacerations, Talon’s Cusp, Dens in Dente, Dens Evaginatus, Taurodontism, Supernumerary Roots, Enamel Pearl

j. Developmental Disturbances in number of teeth
– Anodontia, Supernumerary teeth, Predecidious and Post Permanent dentition

k. Developmental Disturbances in Structure of Teeth:
– Amelogenesis Imperfecta , Enamel Hypoplasia, Dentinogenesis Imperfecta, Dentinal dysplasia, Regional Odontodysplasia, Shell Teeth.

l. Developmental Disturbances in eruption of teeth:
– Premature Eruptions, Eruption Sequestrum, Delayed Eruption, Multiple Unerupted teeth, Submerged Teeth. Embedded and Impacted Teeth.

m. Developmental / Fissural cysts of the Oral cavity – Median palatal cyst, Globulomaxillary cyst, Median Mandibular cyst, Naso-alveolar cyst, Palatal cyst of neonates, Thyroglossal duct cyst, Epidermoid, and Dermoid cyst, Nasopalatine duct cyst

2. Dental Caries (5 hrs)

– Theories and Etiology
– Clinical features
– Classification
– Histopathology
– Immunology
– Caries activity Tests
– Factors Influencing Caries

3. Diseases of the pulp and Periapical tissues (5 hrs)

a. Diseases of the Dental Pulp
– Focal Reversible Pulpitis, Acute Pulpitis, Chronic Pulpitis, Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis.

b. Diseases of the Periapical Tissues
– Acute Apical Periodontitis, Periapical Granuloma, Periapical Abscess, Periapical Cyst

c. Osteomyelitis
– Acute Suppurative Osteomyelitis, Chronic Suppurative Osteomyelitis, chronic Focal and Diffuse Sclerosing Osteomyelitis, Chronic Osteomyelitis with Proliferative Periostitis

Practicals: 50 hours
Identification of Hard and Soft Tissue Specimens

Text Books Recommended

 Name of the Book & Title Author Eddition Year  of Publications Publisher’s Name and Place of Publication
Shafer’s Text Book of Oral Pathology R. Rajendran & B. Shivapathasundaram 6th 2009 Elsevier
Oral Pathology Clinical Pathologic Correlation Regezi & Scuiba 5th 2007

W. B. Saunders

Company USA

Textbook of Oral and

Maxillofacial Pathology

Neville, Damm.

Allen, Bouquot



2009 Elsevier
Oral Diseases in The Tropics Prabu, Wilson, Duftry, Johnson 1st 1992 Oxford University Press

Other suggested reading:
1. Pathology of Tumors-Luca
s2. Oral Immunology – Lehner
3. Oral Pathology – Soames and Southam
4. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology – SAPP Eversole, Wysocki,
5. Colour Atlas of Oral Pathology – John Everson and Crispian Scully


Subject Lecture Hours Practical Hours Total Hours
Oral Pathology and Microbiology 120 80 200

Theory: 120 Hours


1. Benign and Malignant Tumours of the Oral Cavity (30 hrs)

a. Benign tumours of epithelial tissue origin
– Papilloma, Keratoacanthoma, Nevus

b. Premalignant lesions and conditions:
Definition, classification
Epithelial dysplasia
Leukoplakia, Carcinoma in-situ, Erythroplakia, Palatal changes associated with reverse smoking, Oral submucous fibrosis

c. Malignant tumours of epithelial tissue origin
– Basal Cell Carcinoma, Epidermoid Carcinoma (Including TNM staging), Verrucous carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma.

d. Benign tumours of connective tissue origin :
– Fibroma, Giant cell Fibroma, Peripheral and Central Ossifying Fibroma, Lipoma, Haemangioma (different types). Lymphangioma, Chondroma, Osteoma, Osteoid Osteoma, Benign Osteoblastoma, Tori and Multiple Exostoses.

e. Tumour like lesions of connective tissue origin :
– Peripheral & Central giant cell granuloma, Pyogenic granuloma, Peripheral ossifying fibroma

f. Malignant Tumours of Connective tissue origin :
– Fibrosarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, Kaposi’s Sarcoma Ewing’s sarcoma, Osteosarcoma Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, Burkitt’s Lymphoma, Multiple Myeloma, Solitary Plasma cell Myeloma.

g. Benign Tumours of Muscle tissue origin :
– Leiomyoma, Rhabdomyoma, Congenital Epulis of newborn, Granular Cell tumor.

h. Benign and malignant tumours of Nerve Tissue Origin
– Neurofibroma & Neurofibromatosis-1, Schwannoma, Traumatic Neuroma, Melanotic Neuroectodermal tumour of infancy, Malignant schwannoma.
i. Metastatic Tumours of Jaws and Soft Tissues of Oral Cavity

2. Tumours of the salivary glands (8 hrs)
A.Benign tumours
1.Pleomorphic adnoma
2.eWarthin’s tumor
3.Basal cell adenoma
4.Canalicular adenoma

B.Malignant tumors of the salivary glands
a.Malignant pleomorphic adnoma
b.eAdenoid Cystic carcinoma
c.Acinic Cell carcinoma
d.Mucopepidermoid carcinoma
e.Central Mucoepidermoid carcinoma
f.Clear cell carcinoma

C.Non Neoplastic enlargement of Salivary glands
a.Sjogrens syndrome
b.Mickulicz’s disease
c.Necrotising Sialometaplasia

3. Cysts of Odontogenic Origin & Pseudocysts (8 hrs)
– Introduction and Classification of Cysts of Oral Region
– Odontogenic Cysts
– Odontogenic Keratocyst, Dentigerous Cyst, Dental Lamina Cyst of newborn, Gingival Cyst of adults, Lateral Periodontal Cyst, Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst, Radicular Cyst.
– Pseudocysts
– Aneurysmal bone cyst, Traumatic bone cyst, Mucous extravasation phenomenon

4. Tumours of Odontogenic Origin (9 hrs)
– Classification
a. Odontogenic epithelium without Odontogenic ectomesenchyme- Ameloblastoma, Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumour, Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour, Squamous Odontogenic Tumor
b. Odontogenic epithelium with Odontogenic ectomesenchyme with or without hard tissue formation– Ameloblastic Fibroma, Ameloblastic Fibro-odontoma, Odontoma, Dentinogenic Ghost cell Tumor
c. Odontogenic ectomesenchyme with or without included Odontogenic epithelium- Peripheral and Central Odontogenic Fibroma, Odontogenic Myxoma, Benign Cementoblastoma.

Odontogenic carcinomas : Metastasizing ameloblastoma, Ameloblastic carcinoma

5. Regressive alterations of teeth (2 hrs)
a. Attrition, abrasion, erosion, abfraction
b. Dentinal sclerosis, dead tracts, secondary dentin, pulp calcifications
c. Resorption of teeth (internal & external)
d. Hypercementosis and Cementicles

6. Infections of the Oral cavity(10 hrs)
a. Bacterial Infections: Scarlet fever, Diphtheria, Tuberculosis, Syphilis,actinomycosis, Tetanus, Noma.
b. Viral Infections : Herpes Simplex, Measles, Mumps, Chicken Pox, Herpes Zoster, Cytomegalic Inclusion disease, H.I.V and Oral Manifestations of AIDS
c. Fungal Infections : Candidiasis, Histoplasmosis, Phycomycosis and Rhinosporidosis.

7. Allergic and Immunological Diseases of the Oral cavity (2 hrs)
– Immunological Diseases: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis, Bechet’s Syndrome, Reiter’s
Syndrome, Sarcoidosis, Wegener’s Granulomatosis
– Allergic Diseases: Angioedema, Stomatitis Medicamentosa, Stomatitis Venenata

8. Spread of Oral Infection (2 hrs)
a. Cellulitis, Ludwig’s Angina, Intra Cranial Complication of Dental Infection, Maxillary sinusitis, Focal Infection and foci of Infection (Definition, Mechanism and significance)

9. Physical and Chemical Injuries of the Oral Cavity (5 hrs)
a. Physical Injuries of Teeth – Bruxism, Ankylosis
b. Physical Injuries of Bone – Traumatic Bone Cyst
c. Physical Injuries of Soft tissues – Traumatic Ulcer, Denture Injuries of the Mucosa, Mucous Retention Phenomena
d. Chemical Injuries of Oral Cavity – Aspirin Burn, Lead, Mercury and Bismuth Poisoning, Acrodynia
Silver poisoning, Dilantin sodium -induced gingival enlargement, Tetracycline
e. Effects of Radiation on bone and Oral Mucosa

10. Biopsy, Cytology and Healing of Oral Wounds(5 hrs)
– Factors affecting the healing of wounds
– Healing of Extraction Wound and Dry Socket
– Healing of Fracture
– Biopsy Techniques, Processing of tissues with a brief account of routine stains used,
– Healing Of Biopsy Wound
– Basic Aspects of Cytology:
– Indications, Staining of Cytosmears, Interpretation of Cytosmears
– Re-Implantation and Transplantation of Teeth

11. Disease of Bone (8 hrs)
– Genetic: Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Cleidocranial Dysplasia, Craniofacial Dysostosis, Mandibulofacial Dysostosis, Pierre Robin Anomalad, Marfan’s Syndrome, Down’s Syndrome, Osteopetrosis, Achondroplasia, Cherubism
– Fibro-Osseous Lesions: Fibrous Dysplasia & Cemento-osseous dysplasias
– Unknown Etiology: Paget’s Disease, Histiocytosis-X-Disease
– Disorders of the Temproromandibular Joint:
Developmental disturbances of the TMJ
Ankylosis of the TMJ
Subluxation and luxation
Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome

12. Blood Dyscrasias (4 hrs)
– Clinico-pathological aspects and oral manifestations of Anemias, Polycythemia, Leukopenia, Neutropenia, Agranulocytosis, Chediak-Higashi Syndrome, Leukocytosis, Infectious mononucleosis, Leukaemias, Purpura, Haemophilia

13. Diseases of Periodontology (5 hrs)
– Stains, Calculus, Dental Plaque
– Gingivitis, Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG), Gingival hyperplasia, Periodontitis, Juvenile periodontitis

14. Diseases of Skin (10 hrs)
– Hereditary Ectodermal Dysplasia, Chondroectodermal Dysplasia, Dyskeratosis Congenita, White Sponge Nevus, Hereditary Benign Intra Epithelial Dyskeratosis, Ehler-Danlos Syndrome
Lichen Planus, Pemphigus, Benign Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid, Cicatricial Pemphigoid, Psoriasis, Erythema Multiformae, Epidermolysis Bullosa, Scleroderma, Lupus Erythematosus

15. Defence Mechanisms of the Oral Cavity (1 hrs)

16. Introduction to Forensic Odontology (2hrs)
– Introduction, definition, aims & scope.
– Sex and ethnic (racial) differences in tooth morphology and histological age estimation
– Determination of sex & blood groups from buccal mucosa/ saliva
– Dental DNA methods
– Bite marks, rugae patterns and lip prints
– Dental importance of poisons and corrosives
– Overview of forensic medicine and toxicology

17. Oral Aspects Of Metabolic Disease: (5 Hrs)
– Oral Aspects of Disturbances in Mineral Metabolism: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Zinc, Fluorine, Iron
– Oral Aspects of Avitaminoses and Hypervitaminoses: Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Vitamin B complex
– Oral Aspects of Disturbances in Hormone Metabolism: Hypopituitarism, Hyperpituitarism,
Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Hypoparathyroidism, Hyperparathyroidism, Addison’s disease, Cushing’s Syndrome, Diabetes Mellitus

18. Diseases of Nerves: (2hrs)
– Trigeminal neuralgia, Sphenopalatine neuralgia, Frey’s Syndrome, Burning Mouth Syndrome

19. Oral Microbiology: (3hrs)
Normal Oral Microbial Flora

Microbiology of Dental Caries
Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces israelii, Veillonella

Microbiology of Periodontal Diseases:
Borrelia vincentii, Fusobacteria, Actinomycetes actinomycetum-comitans

Microbiology of Oral Infections:
Bacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum
Viruses: Herpes group of viruses, Human immunodeficiency virus
Fungi: Candida albicans

Practicals : 80 hours
a. Identification of Hard and Soft Tissue Specimens
b. Demonstration of Cytosmear and bacteriology smear
c. Identification of Microscopic slides of Various Oral Lesions

Identification of the histopathologic slides of the following lesions :
1. Pit & fissure caries
2. Smooth surface caries
3. Dental caris – liquefaction focie
4. Pulp polyp
5. Periapical granuloma
6. Dentigerous cyst
7. Radicular cyst
8. Cholesterol clefts / cholesterol crystals
9. Rushton bodies
10. Calcifying odontogenic cyst
11. Mucocele
12. Leukoplakia
13. Carcinoma-in-situ
14. Oral submucous fibrosis (h/e)
15. Fordyce’s spots
16. Papilloma
17. Fibroma
18. Lipoma
19. Capillary hemangioma
20. Cavernous hemangioma
21. Lymphangioma
22. Schwannoma
23. Well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma
24. Moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma
25. Verrucous carcinoma
26. Malignant melanoma
27. Osteosarcoma
28. Pyogenic granuloma
29. Fibrous dysplasia
30. Ossifying fibroma
31. Paget’s disease
32. Osteomyelitis (acute)
33. Osteomyelitis (chronic)
34. Peripheral giant cell granuloma
35. Central gaint cell granuloma
36. Ameloblastoma (follicular)
37. Ameloblastoma (plexiform)
38. Ameloblastoma (granular cell varint)
39. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour
40. Cementoblastoma
41. Ameloblastic fibroma
42. Compound odontome
43. Pleomorphic adenoma, preferably with metaplastic areas
44. Warthin’s tumour
45. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (high grade)
46. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (low grade)
47. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (pas)
48. Necrotizing sialometaplasia
49. Lichen planus with civatte bodies
50. Pemphigus
51. Tuberculosis
52. Actinomycosis
53. Candidiasis

1. Ultrastructural features, Immunofluorescence techniques for muco-cutaneous lesions and viral infections
2. Basics of immunology
3. Different type of Microscopy used in the diagnosis of oral lesions
4. Syndromes


A.Theory : 70 Marks

Distribution of Topics and Type of Questions


Type of Questions and Marks


Both questions from Oral Pathology only

Long Essays

2 x 10 marks


a. 6 questions on Oral pathology

b. 2 questions on Oral microbiology

Short Essays

08 x 5 marks


a. 4 questions on Oral pathology

b. 1 question on Oral microbiology

Short Answers

05 x 2marks

  Total 70

B. Viva Voce : 20 Marks
C. Internal Assessment – Theory : 10 marks, Practicals : 10 marks
D. Practicals: 90 Marks

Spotters (total 18 spotters)
1. Specimen : Identification & Points in Support 6×5=30 marks
2. Slides : Slides, diagrams, Labelling & Salient features, 12 slides 12×5=60 marks